District Profile of Imphal West
The Imphal West District has two categories of land forms, namely valley plains which constitute the major portion of the district and foot hills. It is a tiny plain at the centre of Manipur surrounded by Plains of other districts. Imphal City, the State Capital is the nodal functional centre of this District. It is surrounded by Senapati District on the north, on the east by Imphal East and Thoubal districts, on the south by Thoubal and Bishnupur Districts, and on the west by Senapati and Bishnupur Districts. The Imphal West District has two categories of land forms, namely valley plains which constitute the major portion of the district and foot hills. The plain valley land at the periphery of the Loktak Lake is low lying and its major potion is inundated since the commissioning of the loktak hydro-electric project. After the inundation a new farming system, i.e. paddy cum fish culture is popular in the area.
The district is endowed with a rich variety of vegetation. The prevailing climatic conditions are favorable for growing a wide range of herbs, shrubs, and also flowering and non-flowering trees. In addition, a variety of medicinal plants are also grown in the district. Few important varieties of non-fruit bearing trees, fruit bearing trees, etc of worth mentioning are Bamboos, Pepals, Kaubila, Eucalyptus, Amla, Parkia roxburgi (Yongchak), Arundo donax (yendhou), Carica papaya (papaya), Citrus grandia (Pamelo), Mangifera indica (Mango), Prunus domestics (plum), Prumus persica (peach), Pyrus selerotine (pear), Psidium guavaya (guava), Famarin dus indica (Tamarind).
Rice is the staple food of Manipuris and is cultivated extensively followed by rabi oil seeds like rapeseed mustard. Among pulses pea is most popular and is mainly grown for green pods. The valley is fertile and a wide range of vegetables, namely cole crops including broccoli, cucurbits, solanicious crops and variety of tuber crops are grown.
District profile Imphal West District
|Geographical area||:||519 sq. km|
|District Head quarter||:||Imphal|
|Density||:||847 per sq. km.|
|Latitude||:||24.30o N to 25.00o N|
|Longitude||:||93.45o E to 94.15o E|
|Altitude||:||790m above MSL|
|Annual Rainfall||:||108.5 cm to 143.4 cm|
|Temperature||:||20.4o C (average)|
|National Highways||:||2- N.H.No. 39 Indo-Burma/Myanmar Road, N.H.No. 53 New Cachar Road|
Demography of Imphal West District
|Horticultural Potential Area||:||15267 ha|
|Area under vegetables||:||1106 ha|
|Vegetable production||:||8490 MT|
|Area under spices||:||1265 ha|
|Gross cropped area||:||28241.46 ha|
|Net Area sown||:||21236.40 ha|
Main rivers draining Imphal west plain are Imphal river, Nambul river and their tributaries. The Nambul river is made up of a number of small streams on its upper course. The course of the river is short and its outlet falls on Loktak Lake. This river passes through Imphal Municipality area dividing its area into almost two equal halves. This river serves as the main discharging drainage of Imphal Bazar area and its surroundings. During rainy season, swift flowing of water directed to it from its tributaries can't be contained in it. As a result, breaking of its river bunds causing water logging in the low lying area is of regular feature.
Climate and Rainfall
Imphal West district receives an annual rainfall of 1592.4 mm (1998-2009 and maximum rainfall is received during the months of Mat to October. The relative humidity ranges from 45.72 to 93.21. The minimum and maximum temperatures are 4.90C and 29.50C respectively. A light winter shower during the month of December is common and provides much needed moisture requirement to the rabi crops. However the rainfall distribution had become irregular though total annual rainfall remains more or less the same and floods and droughts are more frequent.
The valley area of Imphal West district is fertile and is mainly made up of alluvial soil of recent origin. However the soils are acidic with pH ranging between 4.5 to 6.8, rich in organic carbon. Availability of N is medium to high, P is low to medium and K is medium to high. The texture of soil varies from sandy to loam to clayey. The availability of N is not in proportion of the reserve N due to low rate of mineralization and crop is highly responsive to N and P fertilizers. Initially, factors such as soil parent material, rainfall, and type of vegetation are the major determinants of soil acidity. Soil acidity problems are increasing in areas of Impahl West District because of continuous cropping and use of acidifying fertilizers. On the other hand though soils of Imphal West have moderate phosphorus as soil reserve, this is practically of no use to plants, as it is present in fixed or insoluble forms due to soil acidity. It also renders supplied phosphorus into insoluble form within a short period of time. All phosphorus ions either as primary orthophosphate ions or as secondary phosphate ions are subjected to fixation with hydroxides of Aluminium and Iron. In hills, where soils are rich in organic matter, the availability of P is comparatively better which is mainly due to microbial activity.